I know Steve Fuller mostly for his critiques of mainstream science and philosophy of science, for example in Social Epistemology, and his proposals for radically democratizing science, for example in The Governance of Science. Of course Steve is also well-known for his defense of Intelligent Design Theory as science, but I had always viewed this defense as in service of his democratization agenda, rather than as reflecting his genuine beliefs. Perhaps I should have known better given that Fuller has written multiple books on the subject. Recently, Fuller has come out as an advocate of transhumanism, a subject I know nearly nothing about.
Gregory Sandstrom’s pointed review of Fuller’s relationship to the ID movement in the context of his transhumanism was therefore very enlightening for me. Sandstrom’s central contention is that Fuller’s transhumanism is incompatible with Intelligent Design Theory, at least as practiced by the Discovery Institute (the primary institution promoting ID’s intellectual and political activities):
In his SERRC paper “Science without Expertise: Defending My Defence of Intelligent Design (Nearly) a Decade Later,” (2014) Fuller speaks of “ID and Trans-humanism.” Yet he obviously does not have the DI’s version of ID in mind when he links these two notions. Instead, Fuller has a significantly different view of ‘intelligent design’ that he is proposing, which I call cybernetic-ID (forthcoming 2015). Onlookers might wonder how or if Fuller confronts the anti-trans-humanism of the DI or if he has found some way to distinguish their IDism from his own social epistemology. This article puts Fuller’s trans-humanism and the DI’s anti-trans-humanism in sharp contrast.
The DI is fiercely and conservatively against trans-humanism. If Fuller wants to promote ID, trans-humanism and his so-called ‘new eugenics,’ then it would help if he distinguished his position from the politically entrenched leaders and fellows of the DI. Not to do this serves only to confuse IDists who rant against human enhancements and human-technology ‘uplift’ with Fuller’s starkly different vision for the future. This is perhaps most severely stated in what Dr. Michael Egnor says of trans-humanists displaying “shades of Mengele.” For the DI, Fuller’s trans-humanist eugenics is a dangerous threat to humankind, not just in the USA, but globally and people like Fuller are comparable to Joseph Mengele (German ‘angel of death’ doctor in Auschwitz) and therefore best removed from polite society.
I was also interested to hear Sandstrom’s account of Fuller’s religious views and how they relate to all of this:
When we read Fuller’s version of ‘trans-humanism’, we must nonetheless remember that it is at its deepest root framed within a Unitarian worldview. Since writing in 2008, “I am a secular humanist who has been steeped in the historical and philosophical relations between science and religion since my school days with the Jesuits” (2008, 8), he has more recently stated his worldview as a “non-conformist Christian” Unitarian (2014, 7). “By ‘Unitarian’ we mean the idea that each person’s connection to the original creative deity is direct and personal,” Fuller writes. “Unitarians believe that we ‘always already’ have God within us but perhaps not the means to realize our divine potential.” (2014, 5) Thus, in seeking to reach his divine potential, we see Fuller identifying his position as having closer affinities with Ray Kurzweil, Norbert Weiner and Herbert Simon (all of whom are/were more commonly considered as Jewish atheists or agnostics than mainstream Unitarians), rather than with (non-Jewish) atheist trans-humanists like Zoltan Istvan or Nick Bostrom. There are notably other non-Unitarian theists who also discuss and even promote trans-humanism, e.g. Ted Peters and Carl Teichrib that Fuller does not appear to endorse.
In reply to Sandstrom, Fuller acknowledges that his account is essentially correct, though Fuller notes that he has long been aware of the tensions between his view of ID and the Discovery Institute’s. However, Fuller believes his energies are best spent defending his transhumanist agenda from opponents on the other end of the theological spectrum: